Answers to Sample Questions Bilingual Generalist EC-6 Exam
Answer 1: b
Acculturation (answer "b") is the result of an appreciation of other cultures and includes the acquisition of its language. In a bilingual teaching lesson plan, the application of acculturative methods and techniques can soothe language and cultural anxieties, leading to a willing adaptation to the L2 language and culture. Language acquisition depends on an understanding of cultural values as much as it does upon a grasp of grammar, vocabulary, and syntax. An organized and continuing exploration of cultures, involving similarities as well as differences, leads to faster language acquisition rather than a resistance or a retreat from the new language and cultural experience. Acculturation techniques can be accompanied by a wide range of oral listening and response methods, suitable visual cues, and a variety of auditory experiences. Music and film from across cultural divides, accompanied by teacher modeling, stimulates language learning and can be followed by group language activities.
Answer 2: d
The bilingual Language Arts teacher can use multicultural narrative literature to great advantage by pointing out cultural symbols—religious practices and celebrations, iconography, historical events, superstitions—and comparing those customs and practices with the L2 target objectives. While the outward appearance of symbols may seem different, students will soon discover the commonality that exists between cultures. For instance, the Mexican "Day of the Dead" is not such a foreign notion as it may seem when compared to the Anglophile religious day known as "All Souls Day" and its derivative, Halloween. Historical events like independence days and the feats of famous personages may also play a part in stimulating language growth and acquisition. Multicultural literature has the advantage of intersecting with other academic subjects wherein content and vocabulary must be expanded: science, history, geography. Mathematics may also be incorporated into the lesson by considering distances and time traveled.
Answer 3: d
Choice "d" is correct because a vehicle equipped with an internal combustion engine depends on a chemical fuel to operate the motor. The chemical fuel is usually gasoline but it may be natural gas, a bio-fuel, or other chemical product. Whatever the fuel, it must be ignited in the engine chambers (or cylinders) of the internal combustion engine. The resulting explosion then exerts a mechanical force on the piston, the beginning of a complex mechanically-driven process which transfers mechanical energy from the motor to the drive wheels. Each stage of conversion in the process is important. The chemical liquid is injected into the engine block cylinders as a gas whereupon it explodes, trapping heat which then propels the piston. The piston movement is a mechanical process that moves the mechanical energy to the driveshaft and then to the axle and the wheels.
Answer 4: a
Phonics is a way of teaching students to correctly learn to read and speak the target language and to pronounce words as they are spoken. One of the criticisms of phonetics instruction is that it leads to spelling confusion. In the world of "phonics," the "ph" is pronounced as an "f" sound. It is helpful to have students recognize that a "ph" or a "gh" very often have an "f" sound or phoneme, but not always. The words "enough" and "rough" end with the single phoneme which, to a non-native speaker, sounds like an "f." Similar are words that begin with "ph" like the words "phonics" and "philosophy." However, the sound remains the same but the spelling changes in words like "turf"—whereupon strictly following the rule the ELL would produce "turph," a nonsense word.
A phonics program might be supplemented with simple, short spelling drills targeting a list of similar words as those noted previously. Spelling-phonics word lists should be facile and short to create a positive experience. Making a supplemental phonics word list that is too difficult or too long defeats the purpose because it causes ELLs to lose concentration and focus. The purpose of a supplemental spelling word list is to reinforce ELL, not to test it.
Answer 5: b.
It's important for the bilingual teacher to keep in mind that acculturation is a multidirectional experience and not a single path. The contemporary world is full of issues that speak volumes of the cultural understanding required in today's world. Historical examples abound. The current immigration debate may be studied in detail with students discussing the myriad circumstances and points of view. That discussion could touch upon labor, family, economics, and many other elements of the debate.
America's history is also full of examples of the immigrant experience and the merging of cultures into the "melting pot" concept. What do people want? What do they have in common? What keeps them apart? The American Revolution was waged with a wide range of new immigrants from widely different backgrounds, for example.
Answer 6. c
From the cave paintings at Lascaux, France to the illegal graffiti painted on the sides of the railroad cars in a Brooklyn train yard, the world of art offers a chance to explore the diverse cultural experiences of many nations. A focus on the art of different cultures provides an opportunity to communicate ideas and concepts across different cultures. Art is non-verbal communication of the highest sort and passes on knowledge and cultural affirmation in ways that words cannot always accomplish. The formal classroom and formal instruction is highly important in providing the fundamentals necessary to begin communication, but art can penetrate the barriers and inhibitions that tend to characterize the early experience of immigrant/student populations. The depiction of universal themes like love or religion can remove many of the impediments to learning which tend to "freeze" ELLs into unproductive and isolated language regions. In student populations predominantly Latin in origin, artists like Frido Kahlo embody the intersection between Mexican and European heritages. Kahlo is just one example of many in an extremely diverse artistic universe.
Answer 7: b
The lesson plan mentioned in option "b" is correct and also more suitable to the grade level than option "d." Opportunities for teaching math with cultural implications are apparent everywhere and provide a strong basis for future mathematics learning. The universality of numbers is a thread running through all cultures, and so the teaching of math in the classroom of dual language students presents multiple challenges. How much things cost in different countries is both a basic economic lesson and a math lesson. Distances between countries and cities may also be developed into lesson plans, and different temperature scales also provide an opportunity for practical mathematics application.
The price of new blue jeans or athletic shoes in an African country may cost a week's wages. Comparisons of cost inevitably lead to fractions, and where international commerce is concerned, it also leads to monetary evaluations. How much is a peso worth? How much is one yen? Would you trade a dollar for a Euro?
Answer 8: c
A standard measurement of reading assessment is the one-minute reading test. The selected reading should be grade-appropriate and of moderate difficulty. A stop watch can be used to measure the time, and environment should be calm, supportive, and non-threatening. The teacher informally tabulates the number of errors per minute. Errors consist of halting, stumbling over words, long pauses, mistaken words, and other errors. Such tests are typically used in grades 1 through 7. The advantage of regular one-minute testing in this fashion is that everyday vocabulary words are used in context, providing the student with a practical meaning. For the student, the one-minute reading test requires decoding of symbols, combined vowels, diphthongs, and other language skills. In performing this type of assessment, it is better to have a reading passage that is too easy rather than one that is too difficult.
Answer 9: a
The bilingual teacher is cognizant of three distinct learning styles. There is much research data showing that different students learn more quickly in a preferred way. Some students are visual learners, and will quickly absorb a lesson they can see. Using visual cues, either by an actual live demonstration or by the use of a film or series of photos, will help some students quickly acquire the skills needed to perform a task. Other students may learn more quickly from oral instruction: they listen attentively as the teacher breaks down a process into its individual elements and then process and integrate the information as if there is a tape recorder in their brains. For auditory learners, the oral explanation is the quickest way to acquire knowledge. Tactile learners are those who prefer to learn by doing. In reality, most students are a combination of all three learning styles, but knowledge is nevertheless acquired more quickly with the use of auditory, visual, or tactile cues. In employing these techniques, the teacher is not ignoring the diverse cultures of the students, as cultural diversity can be integrated within the visual and auditory lessons that are used.
Answer 10: c
ELL programs can be broken down into five main types.
The goal of Transitional Bilingual ELL programs is to transition the student into the target (L2) language as soon as possible.
Developmental Bilingual ELL programs begin using the L1 language, but use of it diminishes as the student progresses toward the higher grades.
Two-way Immersion ELL programs take advantage of the fact that students can learn from other peer language users. In the typical two-way immersion environment, half the class will speak only the native language while the other half will be bilingual.
Using the Supporting Role language process means that most of the instruction is in the target language, but the teacher will use the native language rarely to explicate difficult topics which do not easily translate.
New Arrival or "newcomer" programs are taught largely in the native language. Their purpose is to familiarize students with the customs, institutions, and general information they need to know about the adopted country.
Last Updated: 02/21/2013