170 TExES Pedagogy and Professional Responsibilities for Trade and Industrial Education 8 - 12 Exam:
- Planning Trade and Industrial Education Instruction and Assessments around Developmental Needs
- Planning Trade and Industrial Education Instruction and Assessments around Diverse Student Backgrounds and Needs
- Factors that Impact Student Learning and Planning Instruction around these Factors
- Promoting a Fair, Ethical, and Effective Learning Environment
- Methods for Creating and Maintaining an Effective and Organized Learning Environment and Methods for Handling Behavioral Problems
- Methods for Effective Communication
- Work-Based Learning Activities, Incorporating Work Experiences, and Designing Instruction to Use Other Teaching Methods that Aid in Meeting Learning Goals and Objectives
- Effective Use of Technology in Regards to Trade and Industrial Education
- Assessment of Student Performance
- Promoting the Development of Business Skills, Safety Skills, and Employability Skills
- The Role of Partnerships with Other Entities Inside and Outside the School Environment
- Promoting Leadership Skills in Students
- Legal and Ethical Requirements in the State of Texas
The exam-taker will have 2 and ½ hours to complete the exam and the exam is scored on a scale of 100 - 300 with 240 set as the minimum score considered as passing for the exam. The Pedagogy and Professional Responsibilities for Trade and Industrial Education 8 - 12 Exam is only offered in a paper-based format and the registration fee for the exam is $82. However, there are usually other exams and fees that are required in addition to this exam in order to become certified as an entry-level high school educator for a trade and industrial education program within the state of Texas.
Sample Study Notes
1. Discuss some common characteristics of successful teachers.
- A sense of humor will relieve tense situations and make class more pleasant for everyone. Students will look forward to coming and pay attention when they get there.
- A positive attitude helps teachers cope with most situations, both in and out of the classroom.
- Setting realistic expectations and making sure students believe they can reach them is a great motivator and helps students achieve a sense of competence.
- Being consistent creates a safe, predictable learning environment. Students don't like it when the rules are always changing.
- Being fair means treating all students the same in similar situations.
- Flexibility is critical. Things change, and students expect the teacher to be in charge and in control at all times.
2. Discuss methods to motivate students to want to learn.
Students don't learn if they are not engaged in the process. They won't engage in the process if they are not motivated. So just how does a teacher fulfill curriculum requirements and excite students at the same time? Teachers want students to learn, but know it is impossible to force someone to learn and equally impossible to motivate someone to learn. The best a teacher can do is to create an environment that encourages learning and to present challenging lessons and hands-on activities that are interesting, meaningful and relevant to the students' lives. To prevent boredom and help students retain key concepts, teachers need to build on previously-acquired knowledge and link new data with old information. Teachers should set clear expectations, teach to multiple learning styles, vary presentation approaches, assign projects that require critical thinking and praise when earned, encourage frequently, and discipline when necessary.
3. Discuss the importance of making connections to other parts of the students' lives.
One of education's primary functions is to prepare students to be productive members of society. To do that effectively, knowledge gained in school needs be meaningful and make sense to the students. Information learned and skills acquired should be used to understand facts, integrate data and apply lessons learned to problems posed outside of school. The ability to see the relationship between seemingly-unrelated topics and events requires critical thinking and advanced reasoning skills. Planning lectures, special projects and field trips that explore universal themes and address national or international issues makes lessons real and relevant. For example, a teacher might assign a Stephen King novel, then identify a similar theme in a Shakespearean play, and finally show the relationship of this theme to the political situation in a third world country. This kind of lesson teaches students how to think critically and creatively and make connections to the real world. Use unexpected opportunities to connect school life to real life. For instance, during career day students could interview a guest. They could then write an evaluation of the guest's profession.
4. Define classroom management.
Classroom management is the set of procedures, strategies and instructional techniques that affect student behavior and learning activities. When the classroom environment is calm, teachers can teach and students can learn. With clearly-defined rules and established routines, there is less discipline and more teaching.
There are many ways teachers can create a harmonious classroom: respect all the cultures represented; be aware of, learn and understand adolescent slang; offer praise and encouragement. Explain the rules clearly, consider the circumstances before taking action, and apply the rules fairly and consistently. Look at situations from the students' perspective; try to be objective rather than judgmental. A teacher should be willing to admit mistakes; it not only makes him more human, but also tells students it is okay to make a mistake as long as one learns from it. Address problems and issues immediately so they don't escalate or appear again. Collaborate with the students, ask for their opinions, and offer choices. When students are active participants and believe they are heard, behavior issues are minimized.
5. Define a discipline plan.
Most students respect rules if they are clear, if the consequences are understood and explained ahead of time, and if they are consistently and fairly enforced. Teachers have a responsibility to set parameters and enforce rules. Disruptions and interruptions need to be dealt with immediately to prevent an escalation of the situation. A discipline plan is a written description of acceptable behavior. It provides a framework in which to assess situations, address issues and make changes. It won't stop or prevent unacceptable behavior, but it does provide a means to identify and deal with it. The plan can be imposed by the teacher or developed with input from the students. Whatever method is used, the plan must be understood by students and parents. Critical elements include:
- RULES are written as positive statements.
- THE INCENTIVE PLAN is clearly defined, easy to understand, fair to everyone.
- POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES are explained and may vary with each rule.
- LIMIT-SETTING ACTS (taken before the next step is invoked) are established.
- NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES are hierarchal steps taken to address unacceptable behavior.
6. Define diversity and discuss its impact on education.
Diversity is the fact or quality of having distinct characteristics. From cultural norms to language differences to socio-economic status, students come from a variety of home environments; some are better prepared academically and socially for school than others. It is imperative for educators to develop programs and curricula that assume all children are capable of learning and meeting high academic standards. It is the responsibility of educators to provide the tools and environment for students to achieve. Anything less is unacceptable.
When students are taught with a curriculum that embraces diversity, it enables them to function more effectively in a complex, multicultural society. Students need to understand the historical experiences of every cultural group in their society in order to appreciate how past actions affect present circumstances. An empowering educational culture that embraces multicultural diversity integrates information about the impact of all cultures and enhances students' ability to understand, appreciate and get along with different racial, ethnic and gender groups. Mary Stone Hanley believes, "Multicultural education is about social change through education."
7. Discuss the importance of problem-solving and decision-making.
To be an effective leader, a student must be able to make decisions and solve problems; the two characteristics are closely related. Both require creativity, the ability to identify issues and options, and the ability to implement solutions effectively. A leader must choose issues carefully, set attainable objectives, develop workable solutions and enlist the support of those involved in and affected by the change. Whatever decision-making process is used, an effective leader always considers the reason for the change, how people will be affected, and the probable consequences of the action.
A sound, logical, well-defined decision-making process leads to effective problem solving. Here are suggested steps to finding a sensible solution to most any problem:
- Define the problem.
- Gather relevant facts.
- List options.
- Develop solutions and consider the pros and cons of each.
- Select the most viable solution(s).
- Explain the choice(s) to those affected.
- Follow-up to determine effectiveness.
- Make adjustments as necessary.
8. Define strategic planning.
Strategic planning is the process of defining the company's purpose, outlining its goals, and deciding how to best use its human and monetary resources. The process should involve representatives from key areas; when interested stakeholders are an integral part of the process, the results are accepted and implemented more quickly. The end result is a living document that will be modified as conditions evolve, but will have short-term, medium-term and long-term objectives with a well-defined path to reach each of them. Short-term goals should be easy to attain and quick to implement. They sometimes act as steps to reach the next level. Medium-term goals are more complex and require additional planning and more time to implement. Sometimes they involve more than one department and require extensive coordination. Long-term goals can be difficult to reach, but offer a way to enlarge the vision and scope of the company's impact on the community.
Teaching students the importance of strategic planning in their academic world prepares them to function more effectively when they leave school, no matter what field they enter.
9. Discuss classroom communication methods.
Teachers need to remember that not all students are comfortable speaking in front of a group. Therefore, it is important to recognize that the goal is to foster an environment that encourages participation and no one is inhibited or prevented from participating because of teaching methods. Participation is predicated on teacher and student expectations, instructional strategies, and classroom atmosphere. It is important to develop class rules for discussions, provide frequent feedback, and ask for student input to ensure teaching practices are in line with student perceptions.
Calling on a student can be either motivating or intimidating, depending upon the student and the situation. When a question is asked, a problem posed, or a solution required, students need time to think about the information and formulate a response. A teacher should require different students to summarize the lesson, pose a prepared question from assigned material, or describe something they learned. Acknowledging every contribution encourages additional participation.
10. Discuss the importance of teaching students how to complete an assignment.
Teachers in every discipline have a responsibility to teach students not only the facts about a topic but also how to approach a task and complete the assignment. Instead of focusing on memorizing the data, creative teachers give students ways to discover the answer through research and reasoning. They incorporate relevant commentary and detailed explanations into the instructions for all assignments. Students learn information better, retain it longer, recall it easier, and integrate it more effectively when they understand the how and the why, not just the what. Providing guidelines that explain how to approach a task (such as breaking it into smaller, more manageable parts) and supplying written prompts and reminder sheets gives students valuable tools they can use in all classes. These reasoning tools can also be used to make choices in areas outside of the academic environment. This is a prime example of making learning relevant to the lives of students.
Last Updated: 03/15/2013