130 TExES Pedagogy and Professional Responsibilities 8 - 12 Exam:
- Planning Instruction and Assessments around Developmental Needs
- Planning Instruction and Assessments around Diverse Student Backgrounds and Needs
- Designing Instruction to Meet Learning Goals and Objectives
- Factors that Impact Student Learning and Planning Instruction around these Factors
- Promoting a Fair, Ethical, and Effective Learning Environment
- Methods for Creating and Maintaining an Effective and Organized Learning Environment and Method for Handling Behavioral Problems
- Methods for Effective Communication
- Methods for Actively Engaging Students in the Learning Process
- Effective Use of Technology
- Assessment of Student Performance
- Family Communication and Involvement
- Professional Development, Responsibility, and Communication
- Legal and Ethical Requirements in the State of Texas
The exam-taker will have five hours to complete the exam and the exam is scored on a scale of 100 - 300 with 240 set as the minimum score considered as passing for the exam. The registration fee for the Pedagogy and Professional Responsibilities 4 - 8 Exam is $82 and the exam is offered in either a paper-based or computerized format. However, there are usually other exams and fees that are required in addition to this exam in order to become certified as an entry-level high school educator within the state of Texas.
Sample Study Notes
1. Discuss Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development.
Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development are widely accepted by psychologists, and have greatly influenced subsequent theories of psychological development. Erikson believed that each stage was crucial to healthy development. He believed that children would suffer if they were not allowed to move through the stages at their own pace.
In brief, here are Erikson's eight stages of development, shown with the major conflict of each one:
1. Infancy, birth to twelve months: trust versus mistrust.
2. Younger Years, one to three years: autonomy versus shame and doubt.
3. Early Childhood, three to five years: initiative versus guilt.
4. Middle Childhood, six to ten years: industry versus inferiority.
5. Adolescence, eleven to eighteen years: identity versus role confusion.
6. Early Adulthood, eighteen to thirty-four years: intimacy versus isolation.
7. Middle Adulthood, thirty-five to sixty years: generativity versus stagnation.
8. Later Adulthood, sixty years to death: ego integrity versus despair.
2. Discuss Erikson's fifth stage of psychosocial development, Adolescence.
Adolescents are pulling away from their parents and developing a separate and unique identity. They are concerned with how they look whether they are accepted by their peers. They want to be "part of the group," and as a result of this psychological need to belong, cliques develop. To a certain extent, adolescents experience an identity crisis because they are changing hormonally, emotionally, and physically. Intellectually they don't always understand these changes, and emotionally they may have difficulty coping with the consequences. Adolescents are trying to figure out who they are, and how they fit into the world. They explore new ideas, test established limits, and try to cope with the changes they are experiencing. They try on different roles, personas and behaviors as they figure out which identity to embrace. It is a confusing time, but a necessary and critical step in developing a positive sense of self. It is important to remember that parents, peers, teachers, and authority figures all have an impact on the development of an adolescent.
3. Discuss the impact cultural influences have on students' ability and readiness to learn.
Study after study has shown that culture has a direct impact on learning. Since most educational standards are based on white, middle-class cultural identification, students who don't fall into that demographic face challenges. It's not that these students are incapable of learning; they just judge what's important and how they express that importance differently. Sometimes it is difficult for them to understand and relate to curriculum content, teaching methods, and requisite social skills because their culture does things differently, emphasizes different choices and rewards different behavior. Children identify with their culture; they become what they know. If teachers ignore cultural differences, it causes communication issues, inhibits learning and increases the potential for behavior problems. As long as an adolescent has no physical or mental health issues, he is capable of learning. He just needs the information that is presented to be relevant to his life experiences; that is the only way it will make sense to him. This is true at every educational level, but particularly with high school students who are experiencing biological, cognitive and emotional changes.
4. Describe the cognitive changes of adolescence, their effects on young people and the teacher's role in these changes.
The cognitive changes that occur in adolescence affect the way youngsters understand themselves and relate to parents, peers and authority figures. They are learning to think in the abstract, consider hypothetical situations and recognize multiple aspects of a problem. Their information processing is becoming more sophisticated; they are increasingly capable of dissecting complicated issues. They begin applying learned experiences to new situations in unfamiliar circumstances. As they pull away from parents, adolescents begin to develop a sense of independence and a feeling of competence. Teachers are facilitators and coaches whose function is to present information in an interesting, hands-on manner. Examples should reflect students' reality and tell them how they will use the data in the future. Since the primary tasks of adolescence are learning to understand abstract concepts, acquiring and honing problem-solving skills and developing critical thought processes, it is important to prepare lessons that not only teach facts but focus on helping students practice these new abilities. It is imperative for teachers to create an atmosphere that encourages students to develop and utilize these critical skills.
5. Discuss adolescent behavior patterns and how to recognize problem behavior
One of the developmental goals in adolescence is learning to behave in an appropriate manner in different situations. As a result, an adolescent tries on different personalities and experiments with various behaviors. He gradually learns to use his new decision-making skills to assess himself and his abilities. All adolescents engage in risky behavior; it's a normal part of development. But for some, risk-taking becomes problematic and goes beyond the norm. Red flags include regular instead of occasional incidents and involvement with peers who participate in the same dangerous activities. This behavior can lead to delinquency, crime and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, early pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, poor academic performance and dropping out of school. Parents and other responsible adults must explain the possible consequences of these actions, make rules and enforce them. Caring adults should channel that drive into more acceptable pursuits like sports, drama, music, or any other activity which challenges the adolescent's mind, stretches his abilities and keeps him out of potentially troublesome situations.
6. List some ways to handle behavior problems.
Behavior management is an essential key to creating a positive learning environment. If students are misbehaving, they are not paying attention and they can't learn. It is important to establish written expectations, review them as needed and enforce them when necessary. Explain the rules clearly, consider the circumstances before taking action and apply the rules fairly and consistently. Look at situations from the students' perspective and try to be objective rather than judgmental. Address problems and issues immediately, so they don't escalate or reappear. A teacher should be willing to admit mistakes; it shows students it is okay to make a mistake as long as one admits it and learns from it. Collaborate with the students, ask for their opinions and offer choices. When students are active participants and believe they are heard, behavior issues are minimized. Teachers need to be consistent, patient with themselves and the students, keep situations in perspective, have a sense of humor and know when to ask for help.
7. Define and discuss the need for a discipline plan.
Most students respect rules if they are clear, if the consequences are understood and explained ahead of time, and if they are consistently and fairly enforced. Teachers have a responsibility to set parameters and enforce rules. Disruptions and interruptions need to be dealt with immediately to prevent an escalation of the situation. A discipline plan is a written description of acceptable behavior. It provides a framework in which to assess situations, address issues and make changes. It won't stop or prevent unacceptable behavior, but it does provide a means to identify and deal with it. The plan can be imposed by the teacher or developed with input from the students. Whatever method is used, the plan must be understood by students and parents. Critical elements include:
- RULES are written as positive statements.
- THE INCENTIVE PLAN is clearly defined, easy to understand, fair to everyone.
- POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES are explained and may vary with each rule.
- LIMIT-SETTING ACTS (taken before the next step is invoked) are established.
- NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES are hierarchal steps taken to address unacceptable behavior.
8. Discuss classroom communication methods.
Teachers need to remember that not all students are comfortable speaking in front of a group. Therefore, it is important to recognize that the goal is to foster an environment that encourages participation and no one is inhibited or prevented from participating because of teaching methods. Participation is predicated on teacher and student expectations, instructional strategies, and classroom atmosphere. It is important to develop class rules for discussions, provide frequent feedback, and ask for student input to ensure teaching practices are in line with student perceptions. Calling on a student can be either motivating or intimidating, depending upon the student and the situation. When a question is asked, a problem posed, or a solution required, students need time to think about the information and formulate a response. A teacher should require different students to summarize the lesson, pose a prepared question from assigned material, or describe something they learned. Acknowledging every contribution encourages additional participation.
9. Discuss the importance of teaching students how to complete an assignment.
Teachers in every discipline have a responsibility to teach students not only the facts about a topic but also how to approach a task and complete the assignment. Instead of focusing on memorizing the data, creative teachers give students ways to discover the answer through research and reasoning. They incorporate relevant commentary and detailed explanations into the instructions for all assignments. Students learn information better, retain it longer, recall it easier, and integrate it more effectively when they understand the how and the why, not just the what. Providing guidelines that explain how to approach a task (such as breaking it into smaller, more manageable parts) and supplying written prompts and reminder sheets gives students valuable tools they can use in all classes. These reasoning tools can also be used to make choices in areas outside of the academic environment. This is a prime example of making learning relevant to the lives of students.
10. Discuss the different levels of parent involvement and effective communication methods.
Some parents are eager to participate in their child's education, some do so only when required, and others avoid involvement of any kind. All three approaches can be a challenge. Eager parents may bombard the teacher with notes, phone calls and emails. Setting reasonable, well-defined limits may be necessary. Parents who only show up when specifically requested may be incapable of or unwilling to address underlying issues; they show up because they have to. Parents who are never available and impossible to contact provide no help or insight and offer no support. Some communication methods will be more effective than others depending upon the age of the students, the educational level and time limitations of the parents, the administration's support, and the other resources available. No matter what communication method is used, teachers should convey expected behavior, explain classroom rules and present a general picture of material to be covered, project assignments, and homework requirements. Besides scheduled parent/teacher conferences, a periodic newsletter can be used to update parents, tell them how the year is going, and outline future plans.
Last Updated: 03/13/2013