102 TExES Bilingual Education Supplemental EC - 4 Exam Practice Questions
1. Which of these strategies create an effective bilingual learning environment?
A. Do not use the student's native language
B. Require rote memorization
C. Point to objects for clarification
D. All of the above
2. English Language Learners instructional methods include:
A. Transitional Bilingual
B. Developmental Bilingual
C. Two-Way Immersion
D. All of the above
3. The methods used to teach English as a Second Language are:
A. Grammar-based and Communication-based
D. All of the above
4. One of the stages in the continuum of learning theory includes:
B. Speech emergent
5. Which concept is not necessary to include in lesson plans for English language learners?
C. Hands-on activities
D. Using the native language occasionally
6. Which strategy will not help English as a Second Language students and English Language Learners?
A. Pair with a native English speaker
B. Use Idiom and slang
C. Emphasize key words with flashcards
D. Allow the use of a translation dictionary
7. Factors to consider when determining the reading skills of an English Language Learner include:
A. Cultural identity
B. Religious beliefs
C. Availability of reading material
D. All of the above
8. Reading fluency includes:
A. Memorization of facts
B. Making connections with known knowledge
C. Public speaking skills
D. All of the above
9. Factors causing difficulty in determining an English Language Learner's grade level may include:
A. ELL students may not be as smart as other students
B. There are no difficulties
C. School attendance may have been sporadic
D. All of the above
10. Which of these teaching methods is usually not used with English Language Learners?
A. Content-based language instruction
B. Sheltered instruction
C. Language across the curriculum
D. Self-regulated learning
ANSWER KEY EXAM 102
1. Answer: C
Studies show the most successful methods to create an effective bilingual learning environment incorporate several approaches. Teachers who have English Language Learners (ELL) in their mainstream classroom, no matter what the subject area, can do many things to help them learn and improve their pronunciation and comprehension. Some easily implemented strategies:
- Enunciate clearly; speak in a normal volume at a normal pace
- Use short sentences; avoid idioms and slang
- Use appropriate gestures
- Point to pictures and objects for clarification
- Print information (cursive can be difficult to read)
- Explain objectives and answer questions before beginning activities
- Repeat, review, rephrase and summarize frequently
- Praise when earned unless the student's cultural heritage considers individual attention inappropriate; then a private word is better
2. Answer: D
There are five main English Language Learner (ELL) programs that use the student's native language while he is learning English:
- Transitional Bilingual uses the native language in core academic subjects. The goal is to phase into English-only as quickly as possible.
- Developmental Bilingual uses the native language in core academic subjects throughout elementary school. Sometimes the program extends into middle and high school even after the student has been classified proficient in English.
- In Two-Way Immersion the students are from similar backgrounds with about half the class speaking the native language and the other half speaking both. Instruction is about evenly split between English and the native language.
- The native language is used in a Support Role Only. Instruction is entirely in English with a bilingual paraprofessional available to translate vocabulary, explain lessons and clarify confusing assignments.
- Newcomer programs are usually reserved for recent U.S. arrivals. Instruction is in the native language and students are also helped to acclimate to their new environment.
3. Answer: A
The three methods most commonly used to teach English as a Second Language (ESL) are grammar-based, communication-based and content-based. Grammar-based teaches students the rules; structure, function and vocabulary. Emphasis is on the why and how. Communication-based teaches how to use English in every day, realistic situations. It emphasizes practical conversational usage. Content-based teaches grammar and vocabulary and uses written assignments to practices these skills. It emphasizes an integrated approach to learning English.
4. Answer: B
The Continuum of Learning theory outlines predictable steps when learning a new language. No matter what the age and intelligence of the person or the subject matter being presented, teachers will encounter these general levels of mastery:
- The Silent/Receptive or Preproduction stage can last from a few hours to six months. Students usually don't say much and communicate using pictures, pointing and gestures.
- In the Early Production stage students use one and two word phrases. They indicate understanding with yes/no and who/what/where questions. This stage can last six months.
- The Speech Emergence stage may last a year. Students use short sentences and begin to ask simple questions. Grammatical errors may make communication challenging.
- In the Intermediate Language Proficiency stage students begin to make complex statements, share thoughts and opinions and speak more often. This may last a year or more.
- The Advanced Learning Proficiency stage lasts five to seven years. Students have acquired a substantial vocabulary and are capable of participating fully in classroom activities and discussions.
5. Answer: C
There are four key concepts teachers in mainstream classrooms can use to help English Language Learners acquire proficiency in written and verbal English:
- Increase Comprehensibility of lesson plans by using pictures, props, gestures and voice variations to explain and demonstrate. Use short sentences and avoid slang and idioms. Build on the language concepts already acquired.
- Encourage Interaction by asking questions and assigning group activities. This provides the ELL student with opportunities to practice what he knows and increase his confidence, so that he/she is able to learn more effectively.
- Increase Thinking and Study Skills by asking thought-provoking questions and assigning complex topics for research and writing projects. Establish and expect the same high standards from every student.
- Use The Native Language to increase understanding and comprehension. Translating questions and assignments into the student's native language clarifies instructions and helps him understand what is expected.
6. Answer: B
English as a Second Language and English Language Learners pose unique challenges in a mainstream classroom. Several activities will enable them to improve their conversational English, help them understand the subject matter more easily and expand their vocabulary:
- Pair with a native English speaker who explains idioms, colloquialisms or slang terms in simple language
- Allowing the use of a translation dictionary will ease the frustration of trying to determine the correct English word
- Use lots of visual cues: pictures, illustrations, charts, gestures, etc.
- Emphasize key words with flashcards. Have students alternate between recognizing the word, the definition and the picture.
- Have ESL/ELL read the newspaper and/or watch the TV news then summarize the information in a few sentences and present the report to the class
- Assign an ESL/ELL student to a group project. The students learn to work together as a team, the ESL/ELL student gets to practice conversational skills and English-speaking students interact with ELL students in a non-threatening setting.
7. Answer: D
One of the first things that need to be determined before an ELL student's reading skills can be accurately assessed is his cultural identity. His heritage and personal history have a huge impact on his readiness to learn. Some cultures place a great emphasis on learning for everyone while others restrict access to educational opportunities by gender and/or economic status. Previous exposure to formal schooling plays an important role in the student's ability to understand the academic environment and what is expected. Religious beliefs, health issues, psychological trauma and time spent as a refugee all impact the type and variety of reading material previously available.
8. Answer: C
Fluency is the ability to read and comprehend the written word accurately and quickly. Fluent readers recognize words and expressions and understand their meaning. They don't focus on the words, they concentrate on the meaning. They make connections between knowledge they already have and ideas and concepts discovered in the new information. A student who is a good reader in his native language will be a good reader in English. When assessing an English language learner's level of competency, just because he/she "sounds" good, it doesn't necessarily follow that they understand the meaning in the message. It is important to ask open-ended questions about the text to determine his/her comprehension level. If the student doesn't understand what he/she is reading, it doesn't matter how fast they say the words, it is meaningless gibberish.
9. Answer: C
It can be a challenge to determine the English Language Learner's grade level. Birth dates on official documents may not be accurate or papers may have been lost in refugee camps or during transit. Birthdays may not be important in their culture and parents may have forgotten the year of birth. Families may have changed the age of the child believing it would help their situation. School attendance may have been primitive, erratic or non-existent. All these factors are real possibilities.
However, placing the student in the correct grade is critical to success in not only learning English, but in assimilating into his new cultural and educational environment. Experts believe it is important to place the student with people as close to the chronological age as possible because it helps motivate, encourages social interaction with peers and hastens acclimation into his/her new world. Studies have shown that placing an ELL with people a lot younger inhibits the linguistic and academic development and can lead to alienation, disruptive behavior and other socialization issues.
10. Answer: D
Content-Based Language Instruction combines information, hands-on tasks and instructional techniques and uses these tools to develop language skills, learn subject matter and acquire cognitive and study skills. The teacher uses English and the native language to explain and evaluate the student's verbal, written and group efforts. Sheltered Instruction is used in immersion and bilingual programs and is adopted to help students with limited or non-existent English proficiency. They are taught content in their native language and then move to instruction in English (grammar, vocabulary, etc.) with the goal being to mainstream them as quickly as possible. Language Across The Curriculum is content-based teaching that deliberately coordinates English language instruction (grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, etc.) in all classes no matter what the subject matter. Sometimes this program uses an integrated curriculum approach; sometimes it uses a team teaching approach and sometimes a combination of the two.
Last Updated: 02/21/2013